• Daniel Bullock

Top tips and examples for using superlative and compartive adjectives


comparative, superlative, adjectives, tips and examples
How do we use comparative adjectives?

Comparative and Superlative exercises about the planets


Have you ever wondered how to use a superlative adjective? Or how to us a comparative adjective?


In this article we are going to show how we can use comparative and superlative expressions in English while talking about a fun topic – our planets! The planets (and moons) are a good topic for comparing, as each one is surprising and unique, but also, crucially, similar.


An example of a comparative sentence would be this: The Earth is closer to the Sun than Mars. Another thing you could say is this: Mars looks redder than the Earth.


The Earth is closer to the Sun than Mars

An example of a superlative sentence would be this: Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system. Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system.


What is the solar system?

Our solar system consists of many things, but mainly we have the Sun, eight main planets, and also a dwarf planet named Pluto. There are also many moons orbiting planets, and an asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Pluto is in a region called the Kuiper Belt, an area of icy bodies. It comes after Neptune and includes the planet Pluto!


By the way, a little disclaimer here: I am an English teacher and not an astronomer! If I have gotten any facts wrong, I’m sorry! The main idea of these planetary posts is to show examples of English in use. Particularly comparatives and superlatives. I Hope this is as interesting for you to read as it was for me to write!


Is Mercury the hottest planet?


We will kick off our trip into the solar system with a visit to Mercury, the first planet from the sun. There is a lot to say about this hot little planet!


How to use superlatives and the planets

We will use the adjectives small and close to talk about Mercury.

First, small. Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system. (However, some people would argue that Pluto is in fact a planet, so it should be classed as the smallest one!) Secondly, we shall move on to close. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. That explains why it is so hot...but is isn't the hottest, that award goes to its neighbour, Venus.


Mercury is the smallest planet

How to use comparatives

We will use the adjectives hot and small to talk some more about Mercury.

First, hot. Mercury is hotter than The Earth. This is kind of an understatement however! Mercury is in fact the second hottest planet in the solar system. It can range from -173 to 427°C. Sweltering!


Mercury, マンツーマン, 英語
Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar solar system

The comparative "small" in relation to planets

Mercury is smaller than The Earth. As you can see from the picture above, (Mercury is the planet on the far left) it is a lot smaller than the other planets. We can also use the superlative here, because Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system.


Which planet is the hottest?

The hottest planet in our solar system is Venus, even though it is not the closest one to the sun.

Venus, hottest, 英語
This is Venus, the hottest planet

Have you ever wondered which planet is the hottest? How about the closest to Earth?

Here you will find some examples of comparative and superlative adjectives regarding the mysterious planet of Venus.


Examples of comparatives about Venus

Is it close? Yes. Venus is closer to The Earth than Jupiter, for example.

A long day? Absolutely! A single day on Venus is longer than an entire year! What? How does that even make sense?! Well, Venus rotates very slowly - it takes 243 Earth days to complete one rotation. This is longer than the time it takes for Venus to complete one rotation of the Sun. That is year.

Is it very hot? The short answer is yes. There are more details below, but suffice to say, it is hotter than Mercury!


Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system


マンツーマン, 小山
Venus is extremely hot (this is a picture of The Earth, though!)

Examples of superlative adjectives about Venus

Which planet is the hottest in the solar system? The answer is Venus. It has an average temperature of 462C / 863F. Wow, that could certainly be considered boiling hot!


Which planet is the brightest in the sky? It is Venus. Only the moon is brighter. It can even be seen in the daytime. Venus can best be seen just after sunset or just before sunrise.


Which planet is the closest to Earth?

If you look at a map of our solar system, it appears that Venus is the closest planet to Earth. However. studies show that it is a complicated matter. Mercury may well be closer!




英語, mars, 結城
Mars is colder than The Earth. It is also smaller!

Facts about Mars

We are now going to talk about Mars and compare it to planet Earth, and also other planets in our solar system. The aim of this is to practice using comparative adjectives. Some things you might not have known about Mars are coming right up.



cold

red

small

dangerous

tall


How cold is Mars?

It is safe to say that Mars is pretty cold! This is due to the fact that it has a very thin atmosphere. An atmosphere is an envelope of gases which surround a planet. They protect the planet from space. Planet Mars is also further away from the Sun than The Earth. Mars has an average temperature of -69 Celsius.This is very different to The Earth. It can get warmer around the equator though, even up to 20 degrees Celsius. Because of these reasons, we can say that Mars is colder than The Earth.


Mars is significantly colder than The Earth

マンツーマン, earth, 小山
Mars is colder than The Earth (pictured here!)

Why is Mars called the Red Planet?

Whenever you look at pictures of Mars, it appears quite red, doesn’t it? This is because of the rusty dust which can be found in the atmosphere. The surface of Mars is also rich in iron oxide, so it looks rusty. Rust is what forms on metal when you leave it out in the rain for a long time. You know your bicycle that you never put away in the garage? It's probably got a few spots of rust! It is fair to say that Mars is the red planet! Mars is definitely redder than The Earth.


Mars is redder than any other planet

How small is Mars?

We can see Mars quite well from The Earth using telescopes, but actually Mars is a rather small planet! Mars has a diameter of 6790 kilometres. If we compare that to the diameter of The Earth, which is 12750, we can clearly see that Mars is Smaller than The Earth. In fact, Mars is the second smallest planet in our solar system, after Mercury.


英語, mars, マンツーマン
Mars is redder than The Earth


How cold is Mars?

Really cold! It has an average temperature of about -81 degrees Farenheit. Read on to find out how cold mars is, and whether it is the coldest planet, or just colder than some others.


Is Mars dangerous?

It is pretty clear to everyone that Mars could be a very dangerous place for humans to live. Firstly, it is very cold. So, without special equipment like environmental suits, humans would freeze to death! Also, the atmosphere can’t be breathed by humans. Another problem is that the level of radiation on Mars is high, and there isn’t much protection from strong solar blasts of radiation. This would pose problems for mars settlers. Mars is more dangerous than The Earth.


How tall is Mount Everest?

The Tallest mountain on planet Earth is the magnificent Mount Everest. It is 8848 metres tall. Wow! However, is this taller than the mountains on Mars? The highest mountain on Mars is called Olympus Mons. It is 24 kilometres high! That is 20400 metres!


It is the highest, or tallest mountain in the solar system. Quite amazing considering that Mars is one of the smaller planets! To practice a comparative form, we can say that Olympus Mons is much taller than Mt. Everest. We can also say that Mount Everest is shorter than Olympus Mons.


Comparing Mars with other planets

Mars is colder than The Earth

Mars is redder than The Earth

Mars is smaller than The Earth

Mars is more dangerous than The Earth

Olympus Mons is taller than Mount Everest

Many people would say The Earth is more beautiful than Mars

How big is Jupiter?


In short, Jupiter is massive! In this section we are going to be using comparative adjectives to talk about the planet Jupiter. Read on for more details.


Is Jupiter bigger than the Sun?


英語, マンツーマンレッスン
How big is jupiter in comparison to our sun?

Jupiter is very, very large. But it is not bigger than the Sun. The Sun is much larger than Jupiter. It is about 10 times wider than Jupiter, in fact. Jupiter is, however, bigger than any other planet in our solar system. And by quite a big margin. It is truly a massive palnet.


Is Jupiter cold?

The planet has an average temperature of minus 145 degrees Celsius or minus 234 degrees Fahrenheit. That is incredibly cold. A lot colder than the Earth! Another interesting thing about the temperature is that it is not affected so much about how far north or south you are (think Mexico, southern and hot, Finland, northern and cold) but by the height above the surface of the planet. Jupiter generates its heat from itself, rather than planets like the Earth or Mars, which rely on the Sun as their main source of heat.


How big is Jupiter?


マンツーマンレッスン, 結城, jupiter
How large do you think this planet is?

Jupiter has a radius of 69,911 kilometres. Compare that to the Earth, which has a radius of 6371 kilometres and you can see that Jupiter is much bigger than the Earth. It is also, perhaps more impressively, more massive than all the other planets in the solar system combined! That means that all the other planets in the solar system (Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) could fit inside it!



Jupiter is larger than anything else, except the sun!

Just how big are Jupiter's storms?


英語, 結城
A rather windy place!

Have you ever heard of the great red spot? That huge spot on the surface of Jupiter is actually a storm, of sorts. Although it has been shrinking in recent years, it is still much larger than our own planet Earth. Incredible! It is one of the storm systems going across the planet. Perhaps the word storm is not a good technical name for it, it is actually a high-pressure region. But the fact is, it has been swirling around Jupiter for over 100 years! A hurricane or typhoon on the Earth usually lasts only 1 day (although sometimes, a lot longer than that, up to 1 month!). Jupiter has very strong winds. Winds speeds can reach up to 620 kilometres per hour or 385 miles per hour. It is reasonable to say that Jupiter is much stormier than the Earth!